The work of ANCEFA is bearing a lot of fruits on the continent. As data for 2011 is being compiled we provide five boxes of change realized in 2010 as illustrated in the figure below. The boxes showcase results in uniting civil society in EFA advocacy, putting priority on education, increased funding for education, more accountability for education, and increased access to education.
Boxes of Change in 2010
| More United CSOs || More Priority for Education || More funds for Education || More Accountibility || More Children in schools|
| • 35 NECS
• 20 with space
• Case study: Senegal
| • 80% recognize education
• 2010 special 3 countries:Malawi, Kenya, Zambia
• Case study:Malawi
| • 35 NECS Involved
• 20 countries increase budget
• 20 countries allocate 20% or more
• International aid still flowing
• Case study:Kenya
| • 25 country initiatives
• 20 NECs in policy dialogue
At least 10 coalition in budget tracking
• Case study: Gambia
| • Enrolment increase in most countries
• 25 countries discuss inclusive education
• 8 projects: girl education
• Progress: gender parity/NER
• Case study: Tanzania
Our work in 2010 yielded significant impact at national and international levels. The work of ANCEFA contributed to policy change in at least 5 key areas. It led to: a more united civil society; more governments prioritizing education; more funds for education; more accountability in education; and importantly, more marginalized children in school. Below, we outline five boxes of change in distinctive ways in which ANCEFA made an impact on the continent. Each box of change specifies the impact of ANCEFA work, and presents a country case study.
Box 1: More united civil society
ANCEFA work resulted into a more united and stronger civil society monitoring and advocating for EFA in Africa. Establishment of 6 national education coalitions, which ANCEFA facilitated, increased the number of country coalitions in Africa from 29 in 2009 to 35 by the end of 2010.
Each of these coalitions unites at least 20 member CSOs drawn among teachers unions, faith based organizations, research institutions, women movements, local and international NGOs. The presence of national coalitions in countries entails that civil society organizations come and work together in pursuit of common education goals, rather than in isolation. Some of the countries where newly established coalitions, demonstrated working together among CSOs and teachers unions to achieve common education goals include Senegal, Zimbabwe, Cape Verde, South Africa and Mozambique.
ANCEFA also strengthened the work of Coalitions through capacity building workshops and coordinating financing of CSOs through various projects.
Training workshops coordinated by ANCEFA meant that around 500 advocates were capacitated in such skills as education financing, inclusive education, and project monitoring and financial management skills. Through projects supported by IBIS, Wellspring, Save the Children, and CSEF, 31 national education coalitions (including those from at least 25 FTI countries) received funds ranging from US$30,000 to US$180,000 used for capacity building, policy advocacy and institutional support. In Mozambique, for example, MEPT, the national coalition there, after receiving the CSEF funds, apart from strengthening advocacy initiatives pushing for quality education, in 2010 it made great efforts towards the establishment of a national civil society educational fund, as a mechanism through which donors would provide funding for CSOs.
On the continental level, while pushing for stronger partnerships with Africa Union and regional economic communities, ANCEFA got formal recognition from UNESCO, after Ten years of collaboration in the education advocacy field. In 2010 not only did ANCEFA recruit more staff, but also had its first car in the regional office in Dakar, to ease coordination and monitoring.
Case of Senegal: Rival CSO factions united through COSYDEP
Senegal presents a rare case where with financial and technical support from ANCEFA in 2009/2010, 32 teachers unions united with CSOs to build a strong coalition called the Coalition des Organisations et Syndicats pour la Défense de l’Education Publique (COSYDEP). In 2006, a crisis emerged with members being but it was disjointed, and various teachers unions and CSOs dividing camps to advocate for EFA, and the coalition secretariat rocked in project financial abuse. However, with ANCEFA intervention in 2008/2009 the factions came together, and outlined common advocacy agenda through COSYDEP. COSYDEP, did not only successfully host ANCEFA general Assembly in 2009, but also in 2009/10, the coalition vigorously campaigned for expanded ECD programmes, better policies for inclusive education, and increased finances for education, key to achievement of EFA goals by 2015.
Consequently, the State President announced that ECD was government priority while making commitments to ensure the rights of disabled and other marginalised children. In 2010, COSYDEP managed to mobilise the head of state to support the 1Goal campaign during the global action week. In addition, government committed nearly 27% of its national budget to education which is more than the minimum of 20% recommended by the international community. The Senegalese government has also announced reforms to train and recruit more teachers as well as improve their working conditions.
Box 2: More governments prioritize education
It is obvious that in more than 80% of the 35 countries where ANCEFA works with national coalitions education is considered as a key pillar in national development. However, in 2010 there were at least 3 countries where education became a top priority within country policy and legal reform agenda. The countries are Malawi, Kenya, and Zambia.
In Malawi, from missing among the 6 policy priorities in the MGDS of 2006, education was accorded priority number 3 within the ruling party’s development agenda from the 2009/2010 financial year.
In Kenya, Education was accorded a high status as a right within the bill of rights in the new Kenya constitution adopted in 2010, and government moved to make basic education and secondary education affordable for all children.
In Zambia, where government convened a national constitutional conference two years ago, stakeholders ensured that the revised constitution of the republic puts priority on education as a right, and made it an obligation for stakeholders to ensure compulsory attendance. In all these countries, prioritizing education in the policy and legal reform has necessitated increased allocation of resources to the sector, which would have far reaching results in promoting equitable access to quality basic education by 2015.
Case of Malawi: Education moves from a nonentity to a priority
In Malawi, following the 2004 general elections, the new government developed the Malawi Growth and Development Strategy (MGDS), 2006-2011, as a medium term development strategy within its policy reform agenda aligned to the country’s vision 2020. Despite an outcry from stakeholders, education did not make it into the top 6 priorities, which included Agriculture and food security; Irrigation & water development; Transport Infrastructure development; Energy generation and supply; Integrated rural development; & Prevention and management of nutrition disorders, HIV and AIDs. Through various MGDS annual reviews, independent reports, CSOs led by the CSCQBE, the national coalition, have been pushing for recognition of education as a top priority in order to ensure increased financing to among others address the high illiteracy rate of 40% and improve quality of education. In 2009, (the year of general elections in Malawi) CSCQBE with funding from ANCEFA under the RWS project, undertook an election and budget cycle campaign, which urged politicians to put priority on education once put in power.
The coalition developed a CSO education manifesto called, “Education agenda”, which was used to lobby political leaders and aspiring members of parliament to ensure that education was accorded a top priority in the country’s development policy, when they came to power. Following the elections held in May 2009, the ruling party headed by President Bingu wa Mutharika, through a state of the nation’s address, announced nine priorities among priorities for the government, and placed education as priority number 3. Consequently, during the 2010/2011 budget session, funding for education increased by almost 30% from the 2009/10 budget levels. In addition, although the education budget allocation of 15% fell short of the 20% minimum, education received the lion’s share of the national budget, and the allocation represented 23% of the recurrent expenditure, exceeding the FTI benchmark of 20%.
Box 3: More funds for Education
One of the strategies developed in Dakar in 2000 at the world education forum and acknowledged in EFA GMR 2010 is the need for increased investment in education to address the many capacity challenges facing EFA. It is widely known that the international community recommends investment of at least 20% of the national budget or 6% of the GNI to education. In 2010, the push for increased financing for education, reached unprecedented levels, with 35 countries in Africa benefiting from various projects managed by ANCEFA like CSEF and RWS, calling upon their governments to ensure education sector was allocated more funds.
Data collected from national coalitions showed that at least 20 countries made an effort to increase funding for education. 10 countries reached the benchmark of 20%. These were Burundi, 37%, Uganda 30%, Senegal, 27%, Ghana, 25.3%, Ivory Coast, 24.5%, Kenya, 24%, Djibouti, 22.8%, Madagascar, 22%, Lesotho, 21.5%, and Namibia, 20%). 3 countries allocated around 19%. These were Zambia, 19.9, S/Leone, 19.4, and Rwanda, 19.
In a rare case of increased financing for adult literacy, the government of Mali in 2009/2010 financial year increased funding for adult literacy from 1% to the international benchmark of 3%. This was after well coordinated advocacy campaign and pressure by the Mali Coalition, following an ANCEFA supported study called “ETUDE SUR LE NIVEAU DE REALISATION DES OBJECTIFS DE L’EPT AU MALI Cas de l’Education Non Formelle” in 2009. Increased funding for adult literacy is expected to yield more people to attain basic literacy skills, in a country where 70% of the population is illiterate.
A lot has to be done for countries with least allocations including Nigeria, 8.6%; and Guinea Bissau, 11.7%. National coalitions need to campaign more around countries using domestic sources of income to finance education. In 2010 for instance, ANCEFA in partnership with other international NGOs i.e. AAI, GCE, EI recommended during regional and national financing training workshops in Kenya, Malawi, the Gambia and Zimbabwe, that countries could raise a lot of money domestically through better tax administration, resistance to macro-economic targets, and using budget tracking to fight corruption.
On the international scene, aid continued to flow for education in Africa although minimized by the after-effects of the global financial crisis of 2008-2009. By 2010, at least 22 countries out of 34 countries worldwide had received or were receiving funds from the EFA FTI Catalytic Fund. They are: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central Africa Republic (CAR), Djibouti, Ethiopia, the Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mali, Malawi, Mauritania, Mozambique, Niger, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Zambia (from http://www.educationfasttrack.org/a...). It is worth noting, however, that aid to basic education has doubled to US$4.7 billion since 2002, current aid levels, fall short of the US$16 billion required to close the financing gaps for low income countries majority of which are in Africa.
The Case of Kenya: Government Increases Funding for Education in 2010/11 budget
For the past three years, ANCEFA has supported the Coalition in Kenya, called EYC technically and financially to emerge into a strong coalition with capacity to influence policies including those around education financing. In 2007 for instance, ANCEFA provided funds to support the coalitions Election and budget cycle advocacy which included among others training members and regional outposts in budget analysis and financing campaigns, as well as developing an education manifesto as a tool for advocacy.
In 2008 ANCEFA provided technical support to address governance issues that rocked the coalition leading to reorganization of the coalition board and beefing up the secretariat with qualified technical staff, capable for leading effective campaigns especially on education financing.
In 2009 and 2010, ANCEFA supported EYC to get technical and financial support through the CSEF project to among others participate in the legal reform agenda (constitutional review) as well as undertake campaigns for more funds for education in building up the momentum form the election and budget cycle campaigns of 2007 to 2008.
Consequently between 2008 and 2010 government has made policy reforms that have necessitated more resources for education. Among others, in addition to making primary education free, government subsidized boarding secondary schooling, and introduced free day secondary schooling.
Although government has to demonstrate more political will in spending more in education, the commitment to allocate more into the sector was reflected in the 2010/2011 budget. In the 2010/2011 budget, the minister for finance increased funding to both Free Primary Education and Free Day Secondary Education programmes by Kshs. 2 billion each. The FPE and FSE received Kshs. 9.2 billion and 16.2 billion shillings respectively in the just read budget for 2010/11 financial year. The minister also allocated Kshs. 450 shillings for construction of low cost boarding primary schools in ASALs; 1 billion was allocated for upgrading and expansion of 26 Technical Training Institutes to provide the youth with practical skills for self employment. A further Kshs. 640 millions for expansion of training facilities in 8 National polytechnics. If well monitored and adequately implemented, in the coming two to the years, the increased investment in the above mentioned sectors will promote access to quality primary and secondary education.
Box 4: More accountability in education
ANCEFA work in 2010 has contributed to increased accountability in the education sector. In at least 25 countries ANCEFA supported education coalitions are involved in or undertake initiatives that bring about national accountability. At least 20 some coalitions have space in national policy review forums or committees where their voices are held including those that point out shortfalls in policy implementation. For example in Liberia, Angola, Swaziland, Mali, Namibia, Botswana, Swaziland, Mozambique, Burkina Faso and Sierra Leone, CSOs are involved in national meetings and sub committees on education. At least 10 coalitions are involved in budget analysis and expenditure tracking tip ensure that resources are reaching schools and pointing out cases of abuse.
In Ghana, Nigeria, Malawi, Zambia, the Gambia, Kenya, Uganda, and Niger civil society organizations conduct annual budget analysis and regular expenditure tracking surveys to establish the use of resources. In all these countries, the coalitions have pinpointed corruption and misallocation of funds meant for education by politicians.
For example, In Malawi, the CSCQBE issued statements regarding the abuse of K400 million that went missing in one of the districts in to country after being allocated in the 2010/2011 budget. Government is investigating the matter and authorities have pledged appropriate action once culprits are established. Other strategies include publishing reports, working with the media and parliamentary committees, and building the capacity of communities to monitor school resources.
The Case of the Gambia: Capacity built for budget tracking
In the Gambia, ANCEFA has enabled the Coalition there, EFANET/The Gambia to entrench budget analysis and tracking in its program work. Through the technical and financial support provided under various projects like RWS, CSEF, and Wellspring, EFANET now carries out budget tracking on a more regular basis and therefore enhances education service delivery. The coalition has been engaging with the National Assembly to sensitize them on the need to support greater resource allocation to the education sector. That process has been complimented by a sustained engagement with the Ministry of Education for the latter to provide feed-back on inputs and resources in the education sector through tracking strategies.
EFA Net has been participating in policy planning, formulation and monitoring of the education process. That has enhanced the awareness of the National Assembly Members of the urgency to support policy change and greater resource allocation to the sector. ANCEFA supported the organization of a regional training workshop on budget tracking in The Gambia in August 2007. ANCEFA, via RWS II, also financed the Education Watch research as part of the first group of countries to be supported. ANCEFA also enabled the coalition secretariat to participate in the GCE Africa pre-meeting in Dakar in the same year.
In an effort to create transnational synergies, ANCEFA supported the cross boarder Global Action Week celebrations at Kerr Ayib between the Gambia and Senegal and the publication of the Education Watch report. In 2009, ANCEFA commissioned a gender assessment and the deepening of the Education Watch research of 2007.
Much of Text adopted from 2010 RWS Report by GCE.
In the Gambia, Burkina Faso and Senegal for instance, ANCEFA supported coalitions there to host workshops for journalists and parliamentarians on the right to education. The rationale was to sensitize them on key issues in education especially on funding and accountability so that they should take them up with authorities.
Box5: More marginalized children in School
Our work has enabled national coalitions to push for policies or legal frameworks crucial for increasing enrolment and attendance of all children and more especially marginalized groups such as girls and children with disabilities. In 2010, ANCEFA through girls’ education campaign project, CSEF and EFA gender assessment projects supported 8 national coalitions in Cameroon, Lesotho, Liberia, Malawi, the Gambia, Uganda, Sierra Leone and Zambia. The support enabled the coalitions to lead in national dialogue regarding conducive policies to promote girls education such as re-entry policies, construction of girls hostels, addressing violence against girls in schools, polices on separate toilets for boys and girls, increased recruitment of female teachers, and gender budgeting. In addition, inclusive education is now in the national policy dialogue and in Parliaments’ and media debates at least 25 countries working with ANCEFA on the issue of marginalization and discrimination. This has been enhanced by special inclusive education related financial support that ANCEFA provided between 2008 and 2010 to four countries including Tanzania, Burkina Faso, Senegal, and the Gambia. All coalitions that received CSEF funding in 2010 undertook campaigns in favor of girls’ education and education for the disabled children.
While it would be too early to establish tangible figures of enrolment and attendance for girls, disabled children and other marginalized groups, it should be noted that ANCEFA support will sooner than later lead more marginalized children in school, which will contribute greatly to attainment of UPE by 2015. In 2010 for instance, Tanzania, whose case it stated below, received a special award at the MDG Summit in New York for achieving UPE. Nearly 50% of countries where ANCEFA works have achieved gender parity in lower levels of primary education and are making progress in higher levels. In over 60% of the countries the net enrolment ratio is moving closer to the 2015 target of 100. All in all, challenges still remain with sub Saharan Africa accounting for 43% of the 67 million children out of school globally. Limited financing and some retrogressive policies and laws mean that most countries will have tough time to achieve UPE by 2015.
The Case of Tanzania: Notable strides towards UPE
In 2010, Tanzania received special recognition at the MDG Summit held in New York, for making positive strides towards the UPE, reaching a NER of 100. More children in the country including marginalized ones such as girls and disabled children have access to basic education due to policy reforms that included expanded enrolment, increased funding, and increased teacher recruitment. This is a positive story not only for government but also for the CSO network called TENMET, and ANCEFA. One could argue that the efforts of TENMET in Tanzania have constituted to government implementation of policies that have led to the expanded access to basic education.
TENMET which started in 1999, and has a membership of around 200 CSOs spread in 128 districts, is well recognized in government education policy circles. The membership of the coalition has a heavy presence in both national and local dialogue forums thereby influencing strategic positions and policies. It also promotes citizen watch and makes regular recommendations to government. In its activities, TENMET has managed to influence the review of the 1995 Education Policy, the abolition of school fees, and training of more qualified teachers. TENMET also contributed to the development of an inclusive education policy, which has ensured increased enrolment for children with disabilities. Moreover, TENMET and its wide CSO network, is involved in tracking government expenditure, and promoting community participation in policy dialogue and school management. TENMET is currently pushing for a New Education Bill to replace the Education Policy of 1995. Stakeholders in Tanzania including government, donors, and CSOs acknowledge that TENMET has been influential in monitoring and advocating for EFA I the country.
ANCEFA has provided support to TENMET since 2003 through a number of ways. Between 2003 and 2008 ANCEFA has involved TENMET in regional capacity building workshops like on Budget Tracking and advocacy; provided support to TENMET to participate in regional and international forums on EFA; involved TENMET in developing a school governance manual in 2004; provided financial support to TENMET to do research on inclusive education and make policy recommendations to government. In 2007 and 2008 involved TENMET in the regional educational watch research, findings of which were used for policy advocacy in country. In 2009 and 2010 TENMET has received CSEF funds to undertake capacity building trainings for members as well as advocacy for EFA. While TENMET might have received financial and technical support from other partners to enable it do policy influencing work, ANCEFA’s support has and continues to make significant impact in the work of the Coalition in Tanzania, especially in pushing for the achievement of a full EFA agenda in the country.